ممثلية المملكة العربية السعودية في هولندا Kingdom of the Netherlands The Kingdom Regional and Geographical Information Regional and Geographical Information Last updated: 5/27/2015 2:59 PM Page Image Image Caption Page ContentNatural Glimpse:Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula, and consists of narrow valleys along the coast of the Red Sea (Tuhama plains), followed to the east by mountain ranges extending along the length of the country (the mountains of the Hijaz and Asir, where maximum height exceeds 2000m), followed by deserts and rocky plateaus in the center (90% of the total space). The largest desert is Alnufood in the north and Arruba Alkhali in the south. In the east, coastal plains stretch wide along the Persian Gulf coast. Location:The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is located in the far south-west of Asia. It is bordered by Jordan, and Iraq on the north and northeast, Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates on the east, Oman on the southeast, and Yemen on the south. It is also connected to Bahrain by the King Fahd Causeway. The Red Sea lies to its west, and the Persian gulf lies to the northeast. Area:Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula with an area of more than 2,250,000 square kilometers. Geography:Saudi Arabia's geography is dominated by the Arabian Desert and associated semi-desert and shrub land. It is, in fact, a number of linked deserts and includes the 647,500 km2 (250,001 sq mi) Rub' al Khali (“Empty Quarter”) in the southern part of the country, the world’s largest sand desert. There are virtually no permanent rivers or lakes in the country, but valleys are numerous. The fertile areas are to be found in the alluvial deposits in valleys, basins, and oases. The main topographical feature is the central plateau which rises abruptly from the Red Sea and gradually descends into the Nejd and toward the Persian Gulf. On the Red Sea coast, there is a narrow coastal plain, known as the Tuhamah parallel to which runs an imposing escarpment. The southwest province of Asir is mountainous, and contains Mount Sawda, which is generally considered the highest point in the country. Estimates of its elevation range from 3,133 to 3,207 m (10,279 to 10,522 ft). Climate:The Kingdom's climate differs from one region to another due to its different terrain. In general, the kingdom's climate is continental hot summer, cold winter, and its rainfall season is in winter. The climate moderates on the western and south-western highlands. As for the central areas, it has hot and dry summer, and winter is cool and dry. The temperature and humidity rise in the coast, and it rains in winter and spring. The rainfall is scarce for most regions except the south-western highlands of the Kingdom where seasonal rainfall occur in summer and is heavier than other areas.The relative humidity rises on the coast and the western highlands in most time of the year and decreases as we head into the interior. Agriculture:Agriculture has significantly developed in recent years, as the agricultural sector in the Kingdom achieved growing development that led to the rise in agricultural GDP of 990 million riyals in 1970 to 38.3 billion riyals at current prices for this year, and with an annual growth rate of 11% during that period leading its GDP contribution to reach 5.1%.The total area of arable land in the Kingdom is 48.9 million hectares which constitute 22.7% of the total area of the Kingdom, while the total area of lands suitable for reclamation is 3.8 million hectares.The total production of agricultural crops for the year 2008 reached 97 million tons between: cereals 24 million tons (mainly wheat 19.86 million tons), barley, sorghum and sesame, as well as vegetables with a production of 27 million tons (mostly tomatoes, 5 million tons, and melon 3.64 million tons ), potatoes, cucumbers and melons. The total production of fruits, including dates, 16 million tons, and the total forage production reached 30 million tons in 2008. Vegetation:About 2,100 plant species were recorded in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including about 35 endemic plant species, representing about 2% of the total plant species. In terms of spatial distribution, plants are concentrated in the dry areas of the Kingdom, mainly in low-lying areas like valleys, oases and water lanes where water accumulates after rain. As for the perennial plants, which represent between 35 to 40% of the dessert types number and give the dessert areas their vegetal appearance most of the year, they are usually found on limited areas such as oases edges, valleys, low spots, lands of deep soil, sand dunes and bogs.In the highlands of the south and southwest of the Arabian Peninsula, forests and savannah grass uplands similar to those that spread in northeast Africa grow. As for the low desert areas of this region, plant species similar to acacia are found, in addition to other scattered tropical trees. Animal Life:The Kingdom's regions contain a variety of animal life, which its existence stem from its great ability to adapt to living in such arid environment. Many wild mammals , birds, reptiles, insects and arachnids live in the Kingdom and have adapted to the desert environment. The number of these animals has decreased, especially the large ones such as deer due to over hunting. However, the establishment of protected areas in many parts of the Kingdom has contributed to multiply some endangered species such as oryx, gazelles, and others. Other animals include: camels, cows, sheep and goats, and transport animals such as horses, donkeys and other. Mineral Wealth:The country's wealth rely on natural gas and oil. Oil is considered as one of the most important resources: the production of oil is of 409.2 million tons, a stock of 36.2 billion tons, the production of natural gas is of 75.9 billion cubic meters, a stock of 7919 billion cubic meters. Industry:Industry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is related to oil and natural gas: refining and petro chemistry. The most important industrial products are: cement, tar, steel rods, ethylene, fodder, ethylene glycol, industrial ethanol, Deklo'rour ethylene, Alstaarin, caustic soda, nitrogen, citric acid, oxygen, melamine, and there is also a sea water desalination and the food industry. The removal of salt from the sea takes about 100 million square meters of water per year. This quantity is nothing compared to the 9500 million cubic meters per year provided yearly by ground water and consumed by agriculture. Along with that, the Kingdom is currently experiencing a significant growth in agro-industries - food and consumer goods industry, which is based on private capital. Rank Among the World:First in oil production and reserves, fifth in natural gas reserves, ninth in natural gas production. Last but not least, thousands of pilgrims head to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia every year to perform the Hajj in Mecca and Medina, which prompted the state to secure housing, food, medical care, enough to accommodate this huge number.Major Kingdom Cities:Makkah Al-MukarramahThe city of Mecca is located on latitude 21 degrees and 27 minutes and longitude 39 degrees and 49 minutes. It is the headquarter of Makkah Province and has the Holy Mosque, the Kaaba which is the Muslims Qibla, the holy sites (Mina, Arafat, Muzdalifah), um Al-Qura University , and the headquarter of the Islamic Conference Organization. Almadinah Al-MunawarahAlmadinah is located in the north-west of the Kingdom on latitude 24 degrees and 28 minutes north, and longitude 36 degrees and 39 minutes east. It is the headquarter of Al-Medina Province, and holds the Prophet's Mosque, the grave of the Prophet peace be upon him, the Islamic University and King Fahd Complex for printing of the Quran. RiyadhRiyadh is located in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on latitude 24 degrees and 42 minutes and longitude 46 degrees and 42 minutes. It is the headquarters of Riyadh Province and the capital of Saudi Arabia. It holds all the ministries and foreign embassies and consulates, Yamama Palace, the Shura Council, the Conference Palace , King Khaled International Airport, King Fahd International Stadium, television complex, diplomatic Quarter, King Saud University, Imam Muhammad bin Saud Islamic University, the Government Palace, King Fahd Security College, King Abdul Aziz Military Academy, King Faisal Air Academy, Kinf Faisal Specialized Hospital, King Khalid University Hospital, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, King Fahad National Guard Hospital. JeddahThe city of Jeddah is located on the coastal plain east of the Red Sea, which represents a natural extension of the coastal plain Tuhama between latitudes 25-21, 45-21 north and longitude 5-29, 20-39 east. It is a major sea port which gave it a major and historic role as a port and a gateway to the Holy Land, and a transit point for commercial traffic, making it currently the most important center for import and distribution in the Kingdom and is therefore in control of most economic activity due to the presence of air and sea port. AbhaThe city of Abha in the Asir Region is located on latitude 18 degrees and 14 minutes, longitude 24 degrees, 30 minutes. It is the headquarters of the Asir Province, and includes the Kingdom's most important resorts. It is considered one of the tourist attractions and has seen great development in this area. It holds Abha's Airport, Asir national Park, Souda, Dalghan, Alqraa, the Plateau, Alsahab, and Almahala valley. HailThe city of Hail is located west of Al-Adaira Valley, known as Hail valley, on latitude 27 degrees 30 minutes north, longitude 41 degrees 43 minutes east, and is the headquarter of Hail Province. Hail is considered as one of the cultural attractions and is well known for a number of ancient ruins of old castles and palaces such as: Yatab, Janine, Vaid, Jabal Habashi, Athailby, and the fees, drawings and tombs of Thamud in Dhayef. AlbahaAlbaha is located in the southwestern part of the Kingdom, on latitude 20 degrees and 15 minutes and longitude 41 degrees and 28 minutes, and is the headquarter of the of Al-Baha Province. It is a tourist attraction with a quiet nature, high mountains, thick forests and good climate. Albaha has a group of plants due to the fertility of its soil. BuraidahThe city of Buraidah is located in the middle of the Arabian Peninsula, on the left edge of the course of the valley of Ramle on latitude 26 degrees and two minutes, longitude 43 degrees and 58 minutes. It is the headquarter of Al Qassim Province and is famous for agriculture. It holds King Fahd Specialist Hospital, Buraidah's water tower, Prince Abdullah bin Abdulaziz sports city, and different factories producing cement, bricks, sponges, furniture, pottery, bricks and plastic. TabukThe city of Tabuk is located in the northwest of the Kingdom, to latitude 36 degrees, 65 minutes and longitude 28 degrees, 49 minutes, and is the headquarter of Tabuk Province. It is considered one of the agricultural cities where there are many important agricultural projects Producing wheat, fruit, chicken and eggs. It is well known for the agriculture and export of flowers. it holds many Islamic monuments, including the Mosque of Repentance, which Prophet Mohammed peace be upon him prayed in before the battle of Tabuk. JazanThe city of Jazan is located in the south of the Kingdom on latitude 16 degrees and 53 minutes and longitude 42 degrees and 33 minutes, and is the headquarter of Jazan province. The area includes Jazan Valley Dam which is considered one of the largest Kingdom's dams with an energy storage of 7 million cubic meters. Jazan is rich in agricultural production, and includes ancient historic landmarks such as Athar city and Abu Arish Castle. It also has the port of Jazan on the Red Sea, the third port of the Kingdom in terms of capacity, and the main gateway for imports of south-western part of the Kingdom. DammamThe city of Dammam is located in the eastern region on latitude 26 degrees and 30 minutes and longitude 50 degrees, 6 minutes, and is the headquarter of the Eastern Region Province. The region is famous for its oil fields, and holds headquarter of Saudi Aramco, and the industrial city of Jubail, the King Abdul Aziz Port Marine, King Fahd Park, King Fahd International Airport, Dammam Beach, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, King Faisal University, and the Institute of the Air Force. SkakaThe city of Sakaka is located in the northern end of the Great Nufod, on latitude 29 degrees and 59 minutes and longitude 40 degrees and 12 minutes, and is the headquarter of Al-Jouf Province. It is an agricultural city and one of the Kingdom's richest regions in historical monuments, representing different historical eras, such as Fort Zaabal, Tal Assaeyi , Rajajil pillars, Twair castle, Mared castle, and the Mosque of Omar ibn al-Khattab «may Allah be pleased with him». ArarArar is located in the northern border area on latitude 30 degrees and longitude 41, and is the headquarter of the Northern Border Region. It is a city of geographical significance as a cross point of important roads; Iraq, Al-Jouf, Almadinah Almunawarah, Algrayat, and Hafr Albatin. The pipeline Altabalain passes through the city. NajranThe city of Najran is located in the south-west of the Kingdom, to latitude 17 degrees and 37 minutes and longitude 44 degrees and 26 minutes, and is the headquarter of Najran Province. It is famous for agriculture and is rich in palm trees. It has the Najran valley dam which is one of the largest dams in the Kingdom with a storage capacity of 85 million cubic meters. Najran city is famous for its archeological significance since it contains several unique buildings. Al-Ukhdood area which was mentioned in the Holy Quran is south of Najran city.