Canadian history started with the first European settlers who reached Canada thinking they were in the East Indies. They were met by the Aboriginal peoples (http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100010002/1100100010021). According to the Immigration and Citizenship Discover Canada guide, they were divided as follows “ The native people lived off the land, some by hunting and gathering, others by raising crops. The Huron-Wendat of the Great Lakes region, like the Iroquois, were famers and hunters. The Cree and Dene of the Northwest were hunter-gatherers. The Sioux were nomadic, following the buffalo herd. The Inuit lived of Arctic wildlife. West Coast natives preserved fish by drying and smoking.


European Settlers

With the arrival of the first European settlers, the lives of Aboriginal peoples changed forever. European exploration to North American can be traced back to John Cabot, a Venetian working for the British Empire who reached Newfoundland in 1497. On the other hand, the Frenchman Jacques Cartier completed several explorations in the region along the St-Lawrence River in the early 16th century and claimed that territory for the King Francis I of France. In 1604, French explorers Pierre de Monts and Samuel de Champlain built a fortress to what is now called Quebec City and proclaimed it New France.

France and Britain battle over North America

As both sides tried to prosper and gain more territory, the 1700s saw France and England fighting over North America. In 1759 the British defeated the French in the battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec City and the British declared dominion over North America. New France was renamed the Province of Quebec and the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the Province of Quebec into Upper Canada (modern day Ontario) mostly loyalists, Protestants and English-speaking and Lower Canada (modern day Quebec) which was heavily Catholic and French speaking.  In 1776, the United States was formed with 13 colonies seceding from the British Empire and war ignited again.

War of 1812

On June 1812, the Americans launched an invasion attempt against the British Empire in Canada and sought to conquer it. Canadian volunteers as well as First Nations supported the British against the invaders and by 1814 the Americans were defeated and Canada reasserted itself as a sovereign state with clear cut borders with the United States of America.

Dominion of Canada

Fearing the independence of The United States and the consequences of the American Civil War of 1861-1865, a movement to unify the colonies of what was known as British North America began and the Dominion of Canada was created and proclaimed on 1 July 1867 and Sir John Alexander Macdonald became the first prime minister of Canada. The federation included Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario. Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland refused to join. The Province of Manitoba was created in 1870 and with the North West Territories joined the confederation. British Columbia joined the confederation in 1871. Prince Edward Island agreed to join in 1873. The District of Saskatchewan was created in 1882. The Yukon Territory joined Canada in 1898. In 1905 Saskatchewan and Alberta joined the Dominion. Newfoundland joined in 1949. In 1999 Nunavut was created.


Canada and Quebec

The Province of Quebec and the rest of Canada have had a love hate relationship for a long time. Quebec has always aspired to seceed from Canada and declare an independent state ever since the 1960s when Quebec experienced profound changes in what came to be known as the Quiet Revolution. A lot of Quebecers wanted to separate from Canada. In a effort to curtail that aspiration the government passed the Official Languages Act of 1969, which makes sure that French and English are both available at Government services around the country, and in 1970 Canada helped create LA FRANCOPHONIE, an international association of French-speaking countries. Quebec went through two referendums (1982 and 1995), to try and seceed from Canada but both attempts failed as the majority voted to keep Quebec as part of a federated Canada. The topic of Quebec sovereignty is still a debated issue today.


Tourism in Canada

Canadian cities have been named time and again, the best places in the world to live and for good reason. With breathtaking scenery, a multitude of outdoor activities, modern city attractions, and unending stretches of un-inhabited territory all presenting varied and untamed weather, Canada has a lot to offer and each traveler is bound to find his heart’s content.

Tourism in Canada accounts for about 2% of the GDP, which is as much as the combined GDP of the agriculture, forestry and fishing sectors. It is responsible for $73.4 billion dollars in revenues and employs 10% of all Canadian workers. It is an important part of Canadian economy and it is a sector that is always changing and adapting to the economic challenges it faces from around the world, whether it be the latest world economic crisis, and the subsequent rise in fuel cost, or the unexpected climate changes occurring throughout Canada, which in some cases, drastically harms the tourism industry. ​